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Russia and Iran signed a bilateral nuclear cooperation agreement in August 1992. [10] In a follow-up agreement in 1995, Russia agreed to the construction of the Bushehr-1 nuclear power plant and secretly proposed to Iran to supply Iran with a large research reactor, a fuel plant and a gas centrifuge plant. [11] When U.S. President Bill Clinton heard about these secret negotiations, he expressed his concerns about technology transfers to Russian President Boris Yeltsin, who eventually agreed to reduce Russian-Iranian nuclear cooperation, at least until the completion of the Bushehr construction. [12] Despite the ban on nuclear cooperation with Iran, U.S. officials believe Russian scientists and institutes have helped Iranian engineers in sensitive areas of the nuclear fuel cycle and in the construction of a 40 MW heavy water research reactor in Arak. [13] 64. Even more worrying is the bigger economic picture. While low wages paid to illegal migrants could, in some sectors, increase short-term profits and productivity, there is good evidence that this wage distortion hinders the introduction of new and innovative technologies necessary for healthy industrial development and the competitive efficiency of the national economy.

As the Austrian response makes clear, the resulting economic distortions could have serious consequences. With illegal migrant workers, a “sunset” or a declining industry may survive or even appear to be in good health, but in reality it exists on wobbly ground and involves an inefficient use of available national resources. Employers are increasingly relying on cheap, flexible and exploitable sources of labour, which is distorting labour markets in host countries. Distortions in the labour market are often accompanied by trade distortions, as industries dependent on illegal migrant workers often try to survive through trade protectionism, often to the detriment of consumers. Employers who use illegal migrants could thus benefit from an unfair and differentiated advantage over non-users through the exploitation of labour. 35. During the migrant workers` programme of the 1960s and early 1970s, Western European governments encouraged and even facilitated labour immigration. That is no longer the case. Demand for foreign labour persists, but today it comes mainly from informal or less organized sectors in Western Europe, with the exception of highly skilled jobs. The low level of qualifications and the seasonality of many occupations, often painful and/or monotonous, make it difficult to find nationals to occupy them.