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Ukrainian and Russian officials have reached a number of agreements, including protocols on the reduction of nuclear weapons, procedures and conditions of compensation. However, the two sides failed to agree on the final document and the summit ultimately failed. “We gave up nuclear weapons because of this agreement,” he told USA Today`s Larry Copeland. “Now Ukraine is very much in a big mistake.” “There is no way to make it a limited war like the Falkland Islands,” Watling said, referring to Britain`s war with Argentina in 1982. “This would be World War III and the risk of nuclear escalation is unacceptable. We are not prepared to take that risk with regard to Crimea. In order to consolidate security commitments to Ukraine, the United States, Russia and the United Kingdom signed the Budapest Memorandum on Security Guarantees on 5 December 1994. The memorandum, which concluded a political agreement in accordance with the principles of the Helsinki agreements, contained security guarantees against the threat or use of force against the territory of Ukraine or political independence. The countries have promised to respect Ukraine`s sovereignty and existing borders. Parallel Memorandums of Understanding have also been signed for Belarus and Kazakhstan. In response, Ukraine officially joined the nuclear non-proliferation zone on 5 December 1994. This step met the final requirement for the ratification of the START Treaty and put into force the treaty for Ukraine “I would like to thank the Arms Control Association… Make them such an effective proponent of a reasonable policy to curb the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction and, above all, reduce the risk of nuclear war. Ukraine signed the Lisbon Protocol on 23 May 1992.

The protocol aimed to return nuclear weapons to Russia in Belarus, Kazakhstan and Ukraine. All states should join START and the NPT. Within Ukraine, however, there has been little movement for the ratification of START, membership in the non-proliferation or atomization zone. The protocol required Ukraine to stick to the NPT as soon as possible, but it gave it up to seven years to do so. As a general rule, international treaties confer legal obligations on a sovereign state only if that state makes the decision to join the treaty and assume its obligations. However, the debate on the Non-Proliferation Treaty by Ukrainian diplomats shows that the non-proliferation standard – that is, a requirement not to create new nuclear states – is not transposable to the Non-Proliferation Treaty and cannot be understood under strictly legalistic conditions international treaty obligations. After decades as a key republic for Soviet defense industry and military planning, Ukraine began its path to independence from the USSR with the stated intention of becoming a non-allied and non-nuclear state, as stated in its Declaration of State Sovereignty of 16 July 1990 (Ukrainian, English). In this context, it would be wrong to say that the NPT was the decisive factor in Ukraine`s disarmament decision. However, it has framed Ukraine`s nuclear reflections and projections in several important ways.