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Artwork produced by Japanese and American citizens to celebrate the urban relationship between Concord and Kitakami This makes us believe that reaching a city agreement with Taipei was not the make-or-break factor for Shanghai. Instead, other factors were more influential in the decision to denounce the agreement with Prague. Town twinning is sometimes carried out for political purposes. The Hungarian city of Gyöngyös was associated with the Azerbaijani city of Shusha in 2013 and signed the partnership agreement with representatives of the Azerbaijani government; Hungary de jure recognized Shusha as part of Azerbaijan, although it was controlled at the time and until 2020 by the Armenian armed forces and the unrectified Arzakh. [59] In 2003, city councillors in Preston, England, attempted to partner in the name of solidarity with the Palestinian city of Nablus. [60] The history of a twin city goes back centuries. Paderborn, Germany, and Le Mans, France, were the first in Europe to establish the partnership between the dioceses of the two Catholic bishops. Subsequently, an official town twinning contract was signed in 1967. Urban diplomacy is a form of paradiplomacy that involves discussions between officials and residents of different cities. Often, these cities are located in different countries. As such, urban diplomacy involves a kind of international relations that operate alongside the conventional system with embassies, ambassadors and treaties negotiated at the level of nation-states.

According to Rodrigo Tavares, the first formal attempts to establish urban diplomacy beyond national borders took place in the nineteenth century. Only a handful of cities participated in the efforts of the 19. 2000; It was only at the turn of the millennium that it became much more frequent. [14] The first priority of those who do urban diplomacy generally overlaps with the main objectives of the municipal administration: the improvement of the lives of local residents. Yet they will often work with colleagues from other cities to work on issues of global importance, such as. B efforts to combat climate change. [15] [14] If we compare Shanghai-Prague relations with the Borlänge-Wuhan, San Francisco-Osaka or Rotterdam-Istanbul cases, it turns out that everyone has something in common: the politicization of the so-called apolitical sister-city relations. . . .